Proper Propping: Getting the most from your boat’s performance


Selecting the correct propeller is a critical factor in maximizing your boat’s performance.Choosing the correct size and style of prop for your boat will keep the engine operating within its recommended rpm range and allow it to harness as much of its horsepower as possible.

Size DOES Matter:

Prop measurements have two key designators: diameter and pitch. Diameter is determined by doubling the distance from the center of the hub to the tip the prop’s blades. A good rule of thumb is smaller diameter props are typically used with smaller engines/boats, and larger diameter props are typically used with larger engines/ boats.

Pitch measures the forward movement of the propeller’s blade during one complete revolution. This is measured in inches. Lowering prop pitch will increase acceleration and thrust. Increasing prop pitch will make the boat go faster (provided the engine has enough power to keep the RPMs in the optimum operating range. If the engine doesn’t have enough power to run a higher pitch prop, performance suffers across the board and you could easily damage your engine. A good test is, if the prop lets your engine operate at Wide Open Throttle (WOT) within its correct rpm range, you’ve got a good prop fit.

Number of Blades. How it adds up.

For years, boaters have debated the question of 4-blade propellers versus 3-blade versions. (The traditional argument is that 4-blade props are slow and 3-blade props are
fast.) Today, with higher fuel prices and tighter economic times, boaters are taking a second look at this debate. Speed is now a much smaller part of the boating equation. In turn, practical, real-world performance is the name of the game for most people. So, which props should you be using, 4-blade or 3-blade? Traditionally, the idea that 4-blades were slower than 3-blades was true to some extent. But what you need to keep in mind is that many of those 4-blade props were not designed with speed in mind. Instead, the earliest designs were intended to cure handling issues such as ventilation, cornering blowout, motor elevation requirements, and hole shot issues. Without many options in blade design, and very few of them truly intended to be particularly fast, the 4-blade got branded as slow, while their other performance benefits were largely dismissed.

In contrast, today’s 4-blade propellers have evolved into both all-purpose and highly specialized designs. This new generation of props can be tailored to not only address those traditional handling issues, but can also be tailored to improve a boat’s performance range, which can, in some cases, include speed.

Before making a choice, determining your performance priorities will help you determine your prop choice.

Cupped Boat Propellers

Special curved trailing edges enable the prop to maintain performance at higher trim levels and in tight corners. Cupped boat props allow most boats to achieve a higher top-end speed or at least the same speed at a lower engine RPM. They also promote more efficient fuel consumption.

Material is not immaterial.

Propellers can be made of composite, aluminum, and stainless steel. Composite boat props offer good performance, are durable, and inexpensive. They also offer some protection for your lower unit during a prop strike becoming something of a sacrificial lamb. Aluminum props are the most common and are suitable for the widest range of applications since there are so many models and styles available. Stainless steel props offer the highest performance—due to their lack of flex—and best durability.
The chart below is a handy comparison:


Spare yourself the pain…carry a spare.

Finally, always have an extra propeller on board with tools allowing you to change it out. If you have a prop strike or spin out a hub, you will only be delayed a few minutes and not miss out on any for or worse—be stranded.

Boating Basics


Learning begins with the basics. Master the fundamentals of anything and your ability to advance becomes much easier and firmly rooted.

For boaters, there are four basic areas that provide that foundation. Master these, and you are well on your way to becoming a skilled and responsible boater.

Know your boat and equipment

Certified Coast Guard Captains are required to memorize vessel and engine specification manuals that are hundreds of pages thick. This way, they know their equipment down to the last bolt and, therefore, can confidently bring their crew and boat safely through dangerous situations.

In the same way, knowing your recreational boat boat will bring you similar confidence. Start with your boat’s manual (if you have one). This will be your best guide to the features and design of your boat. It should also contain important information for safe operation and maintenance of the craft. Also, make sure you know how to operate the boat’s electronics. At minimum, you should have a VHF-FM marine radio to contact the Coast Guard in the case of an emergency (Channel 16).

Know your water

Purchase navigation charts of the waterways you travel. Store them on your boat taking care to make sure they are wrapped or stored in plastic so they stay dry and legible. Study them often. Be mindful to learn landmarks, hazards such as submerged objects, and safe channel markers. Know where shallow areas are so you are not running aground. Take the time to go on outings solely for the purpose of learning the area, and use your charts to become more familiar with your local waterways. Apps like this one for Lee County, FL are a great resource and a smart added tool.

Beyond this, knowing how to navigate using a compass, GPS, and a chart will allow you to pinpoint your location and chart a safe course. This will all help you to eventually become a skilled navigator, and expand the limits of where your boat can take you.

Know right from wrong (aka the “Rules of the Road”)

Similar to the rules that govern the safe flow of traffic for road vehicles, there are similar rules to govern the safe maneuvering of boats. Called Coast Guard Navigation Rules, they are also known as “Nav Rules.” Although recreational boaters aren’t required by law to know these rules, it is highly recommended. These rules teach boaters safe boating protocol.

EXAMPLE: Do you know who has the “right of way” when you approach a sailboat under sail power alone?

ANSWER: The sailboat does. You must maneuver your boat to allow the sailboat safe passage.

Boating can become dangerous quickly when boaters don’t know these rules, and it’s not safe to assume you can apply road driving rules to marine situations.

Know your safety regulations

Both the U.S. Coast Guard and local marine law enforcement agencies have the authority to board your boat to ensure your compliance with safety equipment rules and regulations. Depending on size, most vessels are required to have navigation lights, a sound signaling device, emergency flares, and life jackets. The larger the vessel, the greater the requirements. Visit the Coast Guard’s regulation page to learn more about these and make sure you are in compliance.

As you master these four basic areas, consider taking a Coast Guard Auxiliary safety course. It is a small investment of time that can make your time on the water safer and more enjoyable.

Boating Courtesy


One of the common frustrations in boating is a general lack of awareness when it comes to observing the ‘rules of the road’ when on the water. While many states require young boaters to successfully complete a boating safety course before operating a boat or watercraft, it can be argued that boaters of all ages should be required to show proficiency in boat handling along with some simple instruction on basic boating courtesy—beyond what is required by law. While, in most cases, discourteous boaters are simply ignorant of basic courtesies, many are simply indifferent or just plain obnoxious.

The following is a look at what you might call the Top 7 Boating Sins. They range from the mildly annoying to things you might think should be punishable by more medieval means. See if you agree.

      Most boaters understand the concept of slowing down when passing between a group of other boats. This means leaving no wake as you pass. Slowing down just a little so that your boat “plows” thru the water is actually more disruptive to somebody (who is, for instance, trying to fish) than passing on plane and leaving less wake.


      While sharing is generally a good thing, forcing your musical tastes on others is not. Voices carry over water. Radios and loud music carry even further. Keeping the volume at a courteous level goes the furthest.


      The first boat to arrive at a fishing area gets to set the tone regarding how others arriving later should fish. If the first boat starts trolling counterclockwise, you should too. If the first boat anchors up, back off a respectable distance and drop anchor. If you want to be the one setting the standard, get there earlier.


      If anglers in a boat are obviously working a stretch of shoreline or reef, pass by behind them without leaving a wake. Anything else is rude and should not be outside the reach of anyone’s common sense.


      Personal Watercraft users need to keep in mind that the rules apply to them as well. A smaller craft does not equate to smaller courtesy requirements.


      Virtually everyone knows littering is wrong…we learn this as children. No one want to see our waters and shorelines covered with litter.


      A boat ramp is for launching a boat. Not rigging a boat for launch, loading gear or casual conversation. When boating alone your rig should occupy the ramp site for no more than five minutes. When boating with a buddy, no more than two or three minutes.